FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
What are Food Protein-derived bioactive peptides?
Bioactive peptides are compromised of two or more amino acid residues joined together by peptide bonds and are typically derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins. Bioactive peptides are low molecular weight protein fragments of 2–20 amino acids residues that exhibit beneficial physiological effects in vivo.
How are Protein-derived bioactive peptides are produced?
The peptides are produced via a highly unique enzymatic process. SmartPEP peptides are protein that has been hydrolyzed, which means it is sliced into smaller pieces by enzymes. Hydrolysis the process of enzymatic breakdown of protein, normally conducted in the GI tract (stomach and small intestine). Enzymatic hydrolysis can also be performed outside the human body, and this is how protein hydrolysates are processed. Food-grade enzymes are introduced to protein concentrate or isolate thus reducing the size of the protein molecules, called peptides. SmartPEP has exclusive technology that insures complete hydrolysis and absorption. Our technology is simple, green enzymatic process for producing and separating a protein- and/or peptide-enriched fraction and a dietary fiber-enriched fraction from a biomass.
What health benefits from Food Protein-derived bioactive peptides?
Moving beyond conventional nutritional benefits and functionality is the discovery that bioactive peptides derived from many food proteins have a positive impact on the health of cardiovascular, immune, nervous and gastrointestinal systems.
Bioactive peptides may exhibit wide range of biological functions, including antihypertensive, antioxidant, mucin-stimulating, insulin-mimetic, and antiosteoporotic, antimicrobial activities and modulation of digestive enzymes, nutrient absorption and immune responses, among others.
What sources of bioactive peptides are produced?
Bovine milk and eggs are the most important sources of protein and bioactive peptides in human diets.
Bioactive peptides from plant sources are typically from soy beans, pulses (chickpea, beans, peas, and lentils), canola, flaxseed, hemp seed, brown rice, corn, wheat, oats and potatoes. Furthermore, proteins from marine sources have also been used, for instance, fish, squid, salmon, sea urchin, oyster, seahorse, and snow crab. This wide array of bioactive peptides sources enables industry to reduce the potential allergenicity of a food.
Why it is important for the DH, or degree of hydrolysis?
A high degree of hydrolysis (High-DH) will produce more di and tri-peptides and significantly lower AMW (average molecular weight) around 1,000 daltons, whereas lower DH powders, often used due to their lower cost and ease of flavoring have little to no concentrations of di and tri-peptides or Lower Molecular Peptides, a higher AMW, and may be relatively biologically unchanged from their prior unhydrolyzed state.
How can we tell if a product has an effective level (High-DH) of hydrolysis?
The best test is to find out the percent of di and tri-peptides or proportion of molecular weight distribution. A High-DH will have over 50% di and tri-peptides. Just as important, a top quality High-DH, biologically-efficient protein product like SmartPEP peptides contain low concentrations of free-form amino acids; levels under 3-5% total. Some products attempt to deceive the consumer by reducing their average molecular weight tests by adding large amounts of free form AAs. This is not what a true High-DH hydrolysate (peptide) is.